Key Rates And Data: Employment !!TOP!!
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The Current Employment Statistics (CES) program produces detailed industry estimates of nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings of workers on payrolls. CES National Estimates produces data for the nation, and CES State and Metro Area produces estimates for all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and about 450 metropolitan areas and divisions.
Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 517,000 in January, and the unemployment ratechanged little at 3.4 percent. Job growth was widespread, led by gains in leisure andhospitality, professional and business services, and health care.HTML | PDF| RSS| Charts
Every 10 years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a full count of the entire population of the United States, as mandated by the U.S. Constitution. To achieve this mission, the Census Bureau hires hundreds of thousands of temporary workers. These workers are reflected in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey employment estimates.read more »
Labour force participation rate Employment-to-population ratio Status in employment Employment by sector Employment by occupation Part-time workers Hours of work Employment in the informal economy Unemployment Youth unemployment Long-term unemployment Time-related underemployment Persons outside the labour force Educational attainment and illiteracy Wages and compensation costs Labour productivity Poverty, income distribution, employment by economic class and working poverty
Historical Data and Economic ProjectionsData on output, prices, labor market measures, interest rates, income, potential GDP, and its underlying inputs from 1949 through the most recent year completed, in comma-separated values (CSV) files. In May 2020, CBO published selected historical economic data.
For instance, students can use the bar passage rates and employment percentages to make an informed decision about where to attend law school. These numbers look beyond law school to the beginning of one's legal career.
Next, look at state-by-state bar passage rates that the National Conference of Bar Examiners provides. Make sure to look at the statistics for first-time exam takers, which is the same statistic U.S. News provides on a school-by-school basis.
Keep in mind that bar passage rates vary significantly from state to state. California's bar examination, for example, is notoriously difficult, with only 54 percent of first-time exam takers in 2016 passing.
Farther up the coast in Washington, however, first-time takers enjoyed a 74 percent passage rate in 2016. Schools that send most of their graduates to California will likely have lower passage rates than schools that send their graduates to other states.
The U.S. News Best Law Schools rankings provide two statistics regarding graduate employment: the percentage of those employed at graduation and the percentage of those employed 10 months after graduation. Each is instructive in terms of what you can expect as a graduate of that law school.
The U.S. agricultural workforce has long consisted of a mixture of two groups of workers: (1) self-employed farm operators and their family members, and (2) hired workers. Both types of employment were in long-term decline from 1950 to 1990, as mechanization contributed to rising agricultural productivity, reducing the need for labor. Since 1990, employment levels have stabilized.
The rest of this page describes the employment, earnings, demographic characteristics, and other information for the hired farm labor force only. (Information on the well-being of the self-employed farmers and their families may be found on the ERS topic page on Farm Household Well-being.)
Hired farmworkers are found in a variety of occupations, including field crop workers, nursery workers, livestock workers, graders and sorters, agricultural inspectors, supervisors, and hired farm managers. The majority are wage and salary workers, hired directly by farmers, but some are employees of agricultural service companies, including farm labor contractors, custom harvest providers, and management service providers. Many industrywide employment estimates also include support personnel on farms, such as human resource managers, sales agents, and truck drivers.
From 2010-20, growth was highest in the livestock sector (which added 41,300 jobs, an 18-percent increase) and crop support services (which added 38,000 jobs, a 13-percent increase). It should be noted that the QCEW is based on unemployment insurance records, not on surveys of farms or households. As a result, it does not cover smaller farm employers in those States that exempt such employers from participation in the unemployment insurance system. However, survey data sources, such as the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey, also find rising farm employment since the turn of the century.
H-2A employers must provide transportation and housing and pay the higher of the applicable State or federal minimum wage, the prevailing wage in that region and occupation, as determined by the U.S. Department of Labor, or the regional average farm wage observed in the NASS FLS. The latter is known as the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR), reflecting the legal requirement that H-2A employment should not negatively affect domestic farmworkers by lowering the average wage. For fiscal 2021, this minimum hourly wage ranged from $11.81 (in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina) to $16.34 (in Oregon and Washington).
Historically, U.S. economic growth and prosperity have been achieved through an implicit partnership of federal, state, and local governments, a partnership that worked astonishingly well for a period after World War II. The federal government provided overall economic stability and sought to ensure that the economy never veered too far from full employment.1 State and local governments assumed primary responsibility for the education system that produced a more skilled and productive workforce. Federal and state governments both invested in infrastructure, and in basic research that provided enormous long-term benefits for the private sector. The end result was a long period of postwar productivity growth, the prerequisite for growth in the standard of living.
Ensuring the fair distribution of the rewards of productivity growth is primarily a federal responsibility, through such things as strong labor laws, fair trade policies, and monetary and fiscal policies that encourage full employment. There are some steps states can take in this area, such as maintaining strong labor standards, including minimum wage laws that protect the lowest paid workers.
Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, and college attainment data from the Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata
Source: EPI analysis of unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, state compensation data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series, and wage data from BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata
We use wages rather than income because wages are directly affected by state efforts to increase labor skills while investment income could derive from ownership of assets anywhere in the world. Furthermore, for most of the population, improvements in wages are the principal, if not the only, path to improving income. We do not use growth in jobs or in output (state GDP) because an increase in jobs or in output does not necessarily translate into an improved standard of living; an influx of low-wage jobs can drive down average pay, and an increase in output can occur with little increase in employment or wages if it comes about through substituting capital for labor.
In some ways, the correlation between wages and education should not be surprising. For an individual, annual earnings rise with increasing education, as shown in Figure E. Higher median annual earnings for those with more education reflect not just higher hourly pay, but more stable employment and fewer periods of unemployment.
Increasing educational attainment can be achieved by a variety of policies and programs, including those that increase access to postsecondary education by restraining tuition growth or increasing financial aid, reduce high-school drop-out rates, move people without high school degrees through GED and associate degree programs, increase the quality of K-12 education to improve success of high school graduates in postsecondary education, and offer preschool programs that lead to long-term improvements in educational outcomes.
This edition of the Research Navigator is our first "re-issue," providing updated data and expanded information on employment (a topic that we covered in our first edition of the Research Navigator in December of 2014). Highlights in this update include:
When discussing employment, there are four commonly used figures: unemployment rate, labor force participation rate, percentage not in the labor force, and employment-population ratio. Since it would be impossible to count and identify everyone who is employed and unemployed in the United States at a single point in time, these figures are reported as estimates, usually based on a survey of a randomly sampled portion of the population.
The unemployment rate, as calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is the percentage of the total labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment and willing to work. Since the unemployment rate is calculated as a fraction of the labor force, it does not count individuals who are considered "not in the labor force" - those who are not looking for work, whether they never sought employment, they left the workforce for retirement, or they dropped out of the workforce because of disability or long-term unemployment (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017). 2b1af7f3a8